Residents of apartment buildings, connected to the central hot water supply, often face with his shutdown. In some buildings, especially in old houses, It does not provide hot water. Rescue in such situations become boiler. Their installation does not require additional approvals, and you can place them in any convenient place.
The main types of water heaters
Water heaters for home may be gas and electric. The last are called boilers. They operate almost silently, easy and safe to use, have a long service life. Gas is more commonly called columns. During operation, they make a distinctive sound, and before installing the need to obtain permits and to connect gas line.
Electric water heating appliances are flowing and memory.
Flowing water heaters
Water heating devices of this type are compact and high heating rate. The water from the system enters the device on heater, It is heated and supplied to a hot tap. Due to the high power of the heating element increases the temperature of the fluid instantaneously.
Instantaneous water heater often installed in homes with frequent tripping or centralized water supply in homes, where it is not provided. The power unit is sufficient for supplying hot water from a single tap. Turning simultaneously two intake points may cause insufficient supply of warm water.
Manufacturers produce devices with power 3-27 kW. Flats with a voltage of one phase can be fitted to the boiler 8 kW. for one minute to heat the device is capable of 6 liters of water. Houses with three-phase voltage 380 As they can be equipped with a more powerful technique.
The advantages of flow aids are:
- small size;
- minimum time for heating water;
- electric power is consumed only when the crane.
Electric storage type
Storage water heater characterized by a large size as compared to flow-through type devices, because it is equipped with a tank for storing the heated water. It is fed through the mixer after mixing with cold water. Gradually, the water can cool down and spent. Lowering the temperature in the tank automatically includes means for heating the water. The volume of the storage unit may be from 10 to 200 liters. The location of the selected wall (for mounted models) or gender.
Choose the volume of the tank should, based on the number of family members:
- 50-80 l can buy for a family of 3 person. Volume is sufficient for washing dishes and taking a shower. Heating of water up to the maximum temperature will allow to develop full bath.
- 80-100 l - a good option for a family of 4 person. The cost of such devices above, than the models 50 l, and time for a full heating need.
- 100-150 l should choose a large family. The amount of heat enough water for washing, bath and shower.
- Units with storage tank more 150 l usually installed in private homes. They need to be placed on the floor, since the mount can not withstand such weight to volume.
selection storage heater It should begin with the definition of the scope of. Insufficient will cause inconvenience, and too large - a long time to warm up, that is, to spend a lot of electricity.
The advantages of the storage units are:
- economical power consumption (1,5-3 kW);
- ability to connect to the power network 220 AT;
- one unit is sufficient to provide hot water all points;
- durable use.
Heaters combined type
Device successfully combine the benefits of using the previous two species. The weight of these models does not exceed 6 kg, a tank volume reaches 30 liters. Devices can operate in two modes. The range of goods is not very large.
Choosing the type of boiler heating element
The water in the boiler is heated by a heating element. Less common model with a spiral heating element. They have more power, but to maintain and repair more complex. Heating elements are "dry" and "wet". The name speaks for itself.
'Wet' TEN - a heating element, made of copper. He plunges into the water and work on the principle of a conventional boiler. Manufacturers often equip their models of the storage-type devices and virtually all - of the flow. "Wet" refers to heater embodiment budget. Direct contact with water leads to rapid formation of limescale, which reduces the ability to heat water PETN. Get the required temperature can be, adjusting the sensor, but it's bad for the useful life of the device.
"Dry" PETN is not in contact with water. It is a special protective flask, which prevents the formation of scale. The cost of these models above 1,5-2 fold compared to units with "wet" TAN. The advantage of expensive models is the high heat dissipation and longer life. Choose the best water heater is necessary, depending on their needs and financial capabilities.
Features internal coating
The surface inside the storage tank type Lifetime is contacted with water, therefore it must be protected from corrosion. Today, the market can find devices with internal coating:
- stainless steel;
- glass and ceramics;
Models with plastic inside are sold at the lowest price, but they are not very reliable. Well established boilers made of stainless steel coated with. The manufacturer guarantees trouble-free operation for 10-12 years old. titanium-coated cell phones are more expensive and have a maximum term of use.
Lacquer similarly to stainless. Adding special admixtures to prevent cracking of the tank itself and the inner shell during heating. manufacturers, striving to make their products more quality, Enamel coated with silver ions. Inner surface acquires antibacterial and anticorrosion qualities.
Variety of shapes tank
Power and type of vehicle, the volume of the storage tank, Heating element type and material of the inner coating - these are important factors, influencing the choice. Hull form must also be considered when purchasing a water heater. They are available in round and rectangular form.
The barrel-shaped body are usually cheaper (due to ease of manufacture), but to install it need more space. Rectangular tank can be placed in a niche, locker, corner. Feature shape makes it necessary to use a thicker layer of insulation.
Vertical or horizontal water heater
Boilers are classified according to the method of installation. They are divided into the following types:
Horizontal and vertical pattern different mode of fastening, as well as the location of PETN. It can be on the bottom plate or on the lateral side of the tank. Manufacturers do not recommend to install horizontal model vertically and vice versa, as this will reduce the life of the unit, and lower productivity.
Limited space for mounting the boiler - it's not a reason to abandon the purchase. The best one will be the acquisition of the horizontal model. It is more expensive vertical, It has a more complex installation and maintenance of the system. The advantage of these models is their "modest" size.
Connecting universal type water heater can be carried out in any position. It depends on the unit size and space. The price of such boilers is the highest.
installation and connection features
Installation of the device should trust the professionals, who is familiar with the instructions and requirements, specified by the manufacturer. Install the heater with violations entail denial of service centers of warranty service and repair.
Ensure the safe use of correct grounding and the necessary pressure of the water distribution system. Lower high water pressure by using a reducer.
Water heater for the house will serve for many years, if properly placed and maintained. Devices for water heating provide comfort in the apartment and a private home.