In the process of wiring is, especially in residential areas it is necessary to apply the technology of wire and cable connections. This process requires certain skills and knowledge. After an incorrect connection may lead to irreversible processes. Malfunction may occur common power supply, and fires. The fact, carelessly arranged that compound stranded wires may cause a fire hazard, which in turn leads to a threat to life and health. Requirements for the installation of wiring in houses prescribed in the Regulations for Electrical, abbreviated - RB. PUE allows the use of premises in residential wiring, made just copper wires. Compound stranded and single-core wires is allowed only by crimping, welding, soldering or with the use of crimps. In compressing connection is made by mechanical means, with screws or bolts and Clem.
Various embodiments twists
Incorrect connection. This twisting of stranded wire with single core. This type of rules is not provided compounds, and if such wiring is detected by the selection committee, the object will simply not be put into operation.
Stranding stranded copper wire used in steamed box, as an intermediate step prior to soldering or welding the junction, and necessarily require soldering or crimping to produce compound.
However, the twist is still used here and need to know how to perform proper twisting of stranded wires. It is often used in cases of emergency, when there is no possibility of a professional to make the connection, and the life of such a compound is small. And further, twist temporarily can only be used for open transactions, so you can always view the connection point.
Why not connect the wires twisting? The fact, that when twisting creates an unreliable contact. When passing through the twisting load currents, Stranding place heated, and from this increases the contact resistance at the connection. This in turn contributes to further heating. In this way, the junction temperature rises to dangerous values, which may cause a fire. Besides, violation of contact leads to a spark in place stranding, which can also cause a fire. Consequently, to achieve a good contact may twist connecting wires of up to 4 mm2. Details about the color of the wire marking.
There are several types of twists. Twisting is necessary to achieve good electrical contact, and creating a mechanical tensile strength. they should prepare Before connection wires. Preparation of wires is performed in the following sequence:
- with wires, at the junction of the insulation removed. The insulation is removed in such a way, not to damage the core wire. If the conductor wires will be cut, then at this point it may break;
- place naked wire is degreased. To do this it is wiped with a cloth, soaked in acetone;
- to create a good contact, degreased wire portion trimmed with sandpaper to metallic gloss;
- after connecting the conductor insulation must be restored. For this purpose, an adhesive tape or heat-shrinkable tube may be used.
In practice, several types of twists used:
- simple parallel stranding. This is the simplest and most common type of connection. With good parallel laid-in junction can achieve a good contact quality, but the mechanical forces on the gap will be minimal. This twist may weaken in the event of vibration. To properly perform a twist necessary, each wire wrapped to each other. There should be at least three revolutions;
- "Winding" method. This method is used, If you need to wire a branch from the main line. To do this, tap on the section removed insulation wires, and naked place by winding the wire connected branches;
- banding twist. This kind of twisting is often used when two or more solid wires. When the bandage is applied stranding additional conductor of the same material, as the wire strands. First the simple parallel stranding, and then to the place of the band overlaps the additional conductor. Bandage increases the mechanical tensile strength in the junction;
- Connect stranded and solid wire. This species is the most common and simple at first performs a simple wrapping, and then clamped ;
- Various other embodiments of the compound.
detail, a method of connecting solid wires https://sdelalremont.ru/nadezhnye-sposoby-soedineniya-elektricheskix-provodov.html
Consider the various embodiments of reliable connection technology: soldering, obžima, and welding the terminal wiring. You give up unreliable twisting when installing soldered boxes and other connections.
Compound copper solid conductors and stranded soldering method relates to one of reliable methods. With this connection creates good electrical contact, a connection point mechanically resistant to stress at break. This method can be used for: splicing two wire damage, The elongate wires, transfer switches or outlets. United thus wires, It can be used in the buried wire. If well insulated junction, such that the wire is not inferior to whole portion.
The technology of such a connection follows:
- training is carried out is done in the same sequence, as before stranding;
- cleaning to bright metal parts of the wires;
- coating the solder connecting points (obluzhivanie);
- wires connected to a type of twist;
- connected by twisting the wire solder propaivaetsya;
- the soldering is processed with emery cloth. In place of soldering should be no burrs, which can damage the insulation;
- the junction carefully isolated.
United thus the wires can be placed under plaster. For reliability, the junction should be placed in a polyvinyl chloride pipe.
Welding refers to the category of permanent joints. This species is the most reliable. It is with this method, the connection portion becomes monolithic. The contact resistance and the mechanical strength of the joint portion is not different from a solid wire. Welding is performed on DC, and alternating current.
For professional welding wires used various types of welding machines, but the most widely used machines inverter current. These devices are mobile, they are easily carried on the shoulder of an electrician, characterized by small size.
Inverter devices have a wide range of operating current regulation. The arc is easily ignited even at low operating currents, and stable during the entire welding period.
In addition to the welding machine for welding of copper wires need to have more and coal, copper coated electrodes.
welding technology consists of a few simple operations. To start off the wire insulation is removed. Then, on technology, the above, performed twisting wires. Twisted wires are aligned by trimming their ends. In order not to overheat the wiring and insulation, necessary to dissipate heat during soldering. For this purpose a special clamp, which is connected to one of the poles of the welder. Welding is carried out by touching the ends of the wires of the working electrode, which is held in a welding holder, connected to the other pole of the welding machine.
pressure tests, the wires are placed in special mounting sleeve, which are formed of the same material, and that the wire. In this case a copper. Then the liner is compressed with special tool. When compression sleeve deformation occurs wires, deforming, wire tightly compressed to each other. When the local indentation, the wires are deformed in such a way, their individual points penetrate into the body of each other. In this way, creates a reliable electrical contact, and the junction becomes mechanically strong. Crimping connecting wires, which are placed in the distribution boxes and electrical cabinets.
Special mounting pliers are used to perform a pressure test. To connect the wires when installing wiring widespread popularity in a residential area got crimping tool model PK-16. For copper wires are used connecting copper liner type GM. They are made of copper and have a red color.
In order to place the compound is not contacted with oxygen, it conserve the special technical Vaseline. In this way, It isolates the junction from the harmful action of the medium. The wires are not oxidized, and the connection will last a long time. The junction can still seal the heat-shrinkable tubing.
This type of compounds compound solid and stranded wires is classified as plug connections. For this special terminals are used, composed and housing and embedded in these devices, intended for screw clamping conductors. Required for reliable connection wire communicate or zaludit . Most widely used when connecting to the end consumer. (lamps and chandeliers)
Applicable for connecting conductors of not more than 2,5 mm2. Using the terminal block of this type can simultaneously connect to 8 wires. They are used for cable connections in electrical cabinets. Mainly used for light wiring. In the female group under heavy loads, use a more robust connection options.
screw terminal blocks
This kind of terminal block among the most popular devices. With them are connected copper conductors only. Due to their small size, they are used in the connection of wires in distribution boxes.
isolating terminals (YOU)
These clamps are used to connect smaller wire sizes up to 25 mm2. clamping construction consists of a housing, made of plastic. Inside the case is a spring, having a conical shape. To connect the wires, they are first connected in a twist beam, and then it is wound clamp. Wires are connected by their retention spring. The junction does not require additional insulation, since the cap body is made of insulating material.