- The need for ventilation in the house
- The efficacy of natural ventilation
- Organization ventilation apartment
- types of ventilation
- Improvement of natural ventilation
- The use of air handling units
- The maximum efficiency of the ventilation system
- Stages ventilation device
- kitchen ventilation
- Check ventilation system health
Any modern housing, including apartment buildings, It is constructed with a view to minimizing heat loss in it. When using high-quality thermal insulation materials and related technologies construction problem can be solved without much difficulty. But this raises some unexpected problem: it is well insulated room turns virtually sealed and unventilated! And comfortable accommodation in a room without a properly organized system of ventilation is simply impossible.
The need for ventilation in the house
Rules of the organization of air in apartment buildings established by the relevant sections of SNP. Under these rules,, the ventilation system must ensure smooth replacement of air in all service and utility room buildings - Bathrooms, toilets, combined bathrooms and kitchens.
This is due not only to the high humidity of the atmosphere in these rooms, but also with the almost constant presence in their human, leading to contamination of air masses - no matter how cleanly this man may have been. Pollution of air and the high concentration therein of moisture in the absence of air quickly leads to very unpleasant effects:
- condensation in windows and their fogging;
- the appearance of dampness and mold;
- the spread of bad smell of mustiness;
- damage and destruction of all contact with the atmosphere subjects;
- pathogens proliferate;
- poor health of people in the room.
The efficacy of natural ventilation
According to the same SNiPs, ventilation in the apartments should be natural, supply and exhaust means: to replace outgoing through the heated air through the ventilation ducts available in door and window openings leaks, open windows and other "natural orifice" of the building goes outside fresh air. Although in modern metal doors and plastic windows, such leaks should not be in principle - if any product is considered to be a marriage ...
Opening windows may help a bit in the warm season, but in the winter simply inappropriate - too cold air is "pulled" from the street, instead of a comfortable warm. A second drawback of the open window - entering the premises of dust and dirt even outright.
On the last floor of the effectiveness of natural ventilation is reduced to a bare minimum. The reason is, that for its normal operation the height ventkanala (in fact, chimney) over the vent should be at least 2 m; condition for the last floor exigeant, particularly in the absence of the attic space.
The development of energy-saving technologies (and heat retention - including) It led to a bit of a paradoxical situation: without the use of additional, reinforcing draft and accessories in supply and exhaust ventilation natural type in modern apartments became totally ineffective!
Organization ventilation apartment
The specific type of ventilation system is selected based on the existing rules of air, depending on the purpose-ventilated location, the scope and number of inhabitants. To date, the following basic standards are set:
- per square meter of housing should flow at least 3 "Air" cubic meters per hour;
- for one adult must be at least 30 cubic meters of fresh air every hour;
- with an electric stove for kitchens rate doubles (60 m³ / h), using gas cookers - triple;
- Bathroom enough to replace 25 cubic meters of air per hour;
- toilets and lavatories combined volume of air must be replaced more - about 50 "Cubes" for an hour.
types of ventilation
By and large,, ways to vent, there are only two - natural and forced.
In the first case, a rod for circulating air masses, It occurs naturally due to the difference in temperature inside and outside the premises. Air while moving from indoors to outdoors.
Forced ventilation is created artificially, by using electrical or mechanical fan - in this case, the direction of air flow may be any, both from housing to the street (exhaust ventilation), and from the street into the room (inflow ventilation). Besides, These two ventilation system - exhaust and supply - relatively easy to combine into a combined unit. Learn about new innovations in ventilation systems.
Improvement of natural ventilation
The easiest way to ventilation, does not require financial outlay and construction works - airing apartments. The air, coming through the open windows and are available in door or window units gap or gaps, output from the existing air ducts in the walls of a multistory building.
However, this method is acceptable is not always - especially in today's, virtually airtight dwellings, in which the "unauthorized" from the street air supply to the house is possible. The way out - to set the (incut) a wall of special air-supply valve with an adjustable opening diameter and a reflecting visor.
Such valves mounted on radiators and level, because of their modest (order 10 cm in diameter) size, It fits perfectly into any interior. It is recommended to equip them with special heaters or at least install near radiators - so it will be provided at least partially heated air flowing in from the cold streets.
Unfortunately, for all its simplicity and speed of installation this ventilation system has one major drawback: its effectiveness depends almost entirely on the efficiency of existing air ducts. In the cold season, when the difference between the cold outdoors and warm indoor air is several tens of degrees, Such a system provides a complete exchange of air quality; summer is the degree of efficiency is minimal ...
Besides, when natural ventilation is not possible to control and regulate the volume of transported air. As a consequence - the microclimate in the apartment to manage becomes very difficult or even impossible to.
The use of air handling units
If it is impossible output air naturally have to pump it mechanically, embedded in via vents duct fans. However, in this case, a reliable control inflows impossible. And this may well lead to a situation, when the fresh air in the apartment will not be enough ...
In such cases it is necessary to install ventilation units, mounted in the main wall of the building and consist of the following components:
- the fan in the housing;
- the filter cartridge;
- Device for heating the incoming air;
- shut-off valve.
Such a device has a structure, eliminates the formation of high noise level during operation, and is mounted in a building wall pierced corresponding diameter hole. After connecting to the Power Supply unit begins to apply force in a serviced apartment fresh air, old as natural or "fan" pulled way through the air ducts. Wherein, to ensure smooth movement of the atmospheric flow, the lower zone of interior doors made barred or at least trimmed to 1 ... 2 cm.
Devices in the apartment forced ventilation system makes it possible to provide a year-round supply of the room warm (if the system hotplate) of fresh air, excluding the formation of condensation and mold growth in the housing. But the problem of controlling the volume output from the exhaust air air ducts at the household level, with limited financial capacity, virtually unremovable - and in poor traction in the ventilation ducts can be formed in the indoor areas of stagnant, "Sportoy" atmosphere.
The maximum efficiency of the ventilation system
Ventilation system, free from all the drawbacks mentioned above - Forced regenerative supply and exhaust "extractor", providing a constant supply of fresh air in the outer space and the corresponding volume of exhaust air output by weight. And, with optional elements, air flowing system also undergoes a multi-stage cleaning.
Forced ventilation with heat recovery - the system is quite complicated in design and installation. It consists of a large number of nodes and elements, the main ones are:
- ducts - are connected to the pipe network, on by forced displacement of air masses;
- fans, enabling the movement of air streams;
- air intakes;
- air valves, preventing penetration of outdoor air into the room at a mass off the ventilation system;
- filter elements;
- heats the air heater;
- noise-canceling device;
- ventilation and air vents;
- elements of the automatic protection against overheating;
- management system and its operation algorithm determining sensors and regulators ...
Used when working principle of such a system recovery (restoration) energy allows, by heating the incoming air from the air Street masses output, lower in the winter consumption of energy consumption by 70 ... 80%!
Stages ventilation device
ventilation system design begins with a comprehensive analysis of the feasibility and necessity of its use in the apartment. At the same time determined by the efficiency of the existing system, the possibility of its improvement or the need to fully transfer to the "prinudilovku", It tests the device additional ventilation ducts.
Calculation of optimal ventilation system is done for each room separately; based on all the data, select the type of ventilation system for this apartment. Thus prepared ventilation circuit, at which point all the main technical parameters of the designed system:
- tracing of air;
- the exact length and ducts;
- location of all ventilation systems involved;
- the exact location of the used shut-off control devices;
- dimensions plants;
- the name and amount of materials needed.
To obtain a guaranteed, all the work both in design, and installation of the ventilation system must be done by experienced professionals - only ventilation in the apartment will be effective, and climate will not pose a danger to human health!
Ventilation device in the kitchen is complicated by the need to not only reduce the air humidity, but also its purification from various smells. To some extent these objectives handle mounted above the stove cooker hoods - but only in a very small way ...
Organization through forced ventilation hoods ineffective - specified in this household appliance malomoschen fan and able to "bleed" through the very small volume of air. Hoods is enough to remove the vapor directly above the stove - but only just. Do not save the situation, even recirculation device type, wherein "entrapped" air cleaned through the filter system and is discharged back into the room - too small for the entire volume productivity of such kitchen hoods.
Effective aeration in kitchens only possible through the creation of a full ventilation system. It should be taken into account, that the capacity built into the walls of apartment houses ventilation ducts, because of their small (13x13 cm) section, is low and does not exceed 300 cube. m in the time (Usually it is hard to live up to 160 cubic meters / hour ...). Self-installation is too powerful "prinudilovki" disrupt the entire ventilation system of an apartment building ...
The only way to improve self-air natural deduction system from the kitchen - Installation of duct fans in the small capacity available ventkanal. In many cases this allows for minimal financial and labor costs to create the room perfectly acceptable microclimate.
Check ventilation system health
rough, but a quick check of the efficiency of the existing ventilation in the apartment can be carried out using a conventional piece of paper or a lit match. If you open one of the existing air vents in the apartment (any) and to bring the vent hole paper - with more or less ventilation workable it must "cling" to the bars. Match flame should be drawn into the channel.
More accurately determine the efficiency of ventilation, you can use an anemometer - instrument, intended to determine the rate of airflow. On the basis of his testimony and with knowledge of the cross section can be calculated ventkanala passing per hour through the passageway air amount. But, Unfortunately, availability of this method is much lower than the previous.