- Legal basis for the replacement of heating appliances
- What you need to know when installing the radiators
- Basic laws of the Russian Federation with regard to heating and radiators
- The basic norms and rules during installation of heating devices
- Radiator Connection Diagrams, efficiency
- side connection
- Bottom connection
- diagonal connection
- Method intersection flow direction
- What better radiator?
- Putting, install, connect the radiator
When the indoor temperature does not rise to a comfortable, the state of the heating elements are not satisfied tenants, there is a strong desire to change the batteries with new ones. May be mounted in a flat radiator with replacing or increasing the number of sections, but you must respect the rules of existing legislative acts of the Russian Federation.
Knowledge of these provisions will help to make a permit, pick-up method, intelligently mount, connect heaters.
Legal basis for the replacement of heating appliances
The heating system of an apartment building - the complex mechanism, requiring special configuration at the beginning of each heating season, periodic adjustment in supplying heat vryamya. Equipment and piping are the common house-property, They are on the balance sheet and in the area of responsibility of the management company or multistory building housing office.
UK (hereinafter - the management company) shall be administratively, financial responsibility for the maintenance of common home heating system in a technologically sound condition. This allows the CC to perform one of its main functions - the provision of public services for the supply of heat to tenants of an apartment house in full during the entire heating season.
Not authorized intervention in the operation of the system, dismantling - Installation of radiators in the apartment - inadmissible. It directly concerns the, who live in apartment buildings with stoyakovoy circuit coolant supply.
Changing the common home heating system will affect the delivery of heat to all apartments, connected to the riser. Tampering legally defined as a gross violation, entails administrative, liability.
The Criminal Code has the right to force the tenant to restore changes, impose an administrative fine. Affected neighbors have the right to go to court with a claim for costs incurred, especially when the heating off caused injury.
problem is solved, if you follow the rules installation of radiators in the apartment, do it legally. For this user, decides to make a change in the heating circuit, must consistently walk a few steps until razresheniya.Posetite dispatching service of the Criminal Code, write an application with a request to send a commission to address the issue of the possibility of replacing the heating devices, connection change circuit, install additional radiators.
The statement is written in an arbitrary manner to the chief of the Criminal Code of the name.
Criminal manager is obliged to accept the application, registered under the accession number indicating reception date, to seal. Make sure that.
On consideration of the application, the adoption of the Criminal Code provides solutions 5 days.
If a positive decision of the Commission composed of devices layout, strapping, is determined by their number and a valid type, made hydraulic calculation, determined time of work.
Project or scheme approved by the Criminal Code, energy-efficient organization.
After completion of the work is carried out pressure testing of the system, Connection to the central heating, compiled acceptance certificate.
lengthy process, requiring material, moral hazard. The result will be an official permission for dismantling - Installation of radiators in the apartment with the possibility of changing the connections,, installation of additional devices.It is recommended to work in the summer months, before the heating period.
For tenants of apartment buildings with central heating layerwise zoning are not such problems. The project provides door-wiring system allows, any changes in the circuit without coordination with the CM, even heated floors mounted, connected to the central heating.
What you need to know when installing the radiators
To make the installation of the heating radiator in the apartment with his hands, you must know and comply with regulatory requirements, established by the legislative acts, operating on the territory of the Russian Federation.
Basic laws of the Russian Federation with regard to heating and radiators
Exposure apparatus and equipment engineering systems for heating radiators described in SP 31-106-2002. These requirements are advisory in nature, but spelled out the links to the existing relevant standards SNIP profile.
Rules and regulations for the design, installation of heating devices can be found in the SNP 2.05.91 or operating changes - SP 60.13330.2016. Here are the basic requirements for the construction sites, parts.
When the heater is installed refer to the provisions of the joint venture 73.13330.2016 (Choose edition SNIP 3.05. 01-85 the next model year). Here describes the options, allowing to properly install the heating radiator in the apartment, distance from wall, gender, Sill, risers. These rules are normalized number of support brackets, fastenings, location and adjusting valves (section 6 SP 73.13330.2016).
The basic norms and rules during installation of heating devices
Below is a sample of the main provisions of the regulations, operating in the territory of the Russian Federation. Part of the rule is a recommendation.
- In twin-zoned of floor heating systems recommended radiation diagram for connecting individual battery. In addition, possible concurrent two-pipe arrangement of the perimeter enclosed protective casing (paragraph 7.2.2 SP 31-106).
- The temperature of the open surface of the radiator should not exceed +70 degrees (7.2.4 SP 31-106).
- Heating devices should be installed, usually, under light apertures. It should be provided free access to the radiators for inspection, repairs, treatment (18.104.22.168 SP 31-106).
- The supply lines to the radiators should be installed with a slope of 5-10 mm in the direction of coolant flow. If less than the length of the liner 500 mm, bias is not required (6.4.1. SP 73-13330.2016).
- Materials used devices and podvodok to them must not form a "galvanic couple" (6.4.1 SP73-13330).
- Minimum allowable distance for mounting devices: 60 mm from the floor; 50 mm from the bottom window sill, 25 mm from the surface wall to the plane of the device. If no window sill top of the battery is set lower than the opening level at 5o mm (6.4.3).
- In one-pipe riser system located at a distance of 150-200 mm from the edge of the opening, podvodok length should be <400 mm (6.4.7).
- Batteries are mounted vertically and horizontally (maximum slope up 2 mm away from the crane Majewski). Shoring-up - at least two brackets (strips) one of the top and bottom. Instead of the lower bracket may be installed on the heater stand (at least two sections including up 10). Do not use wooden plugs when mounting brackets (6.4.8).
- valves, check valves are installed by arrow, applied on the body in accordance with the direction of coolant flow. Mounted horizontally or vertically depending on the design. By locking elements, Management should be provided free access (6.4.12).
- Thermometers, sensors, thermostatic valve assembled in accordance with the requirements of, established by the manufacturer (6.4.14).
- Upon completion of installation of the heating element necessary to conduct washing with water until the pipe at the outlet does not remain solids (6.1.13 SNIP 3.0.5.01).
When installing radiators in the apartment with his hands sure to follow the rules, the above. This ensures quality, proper erection, smooth and continuous operation of the heating device.
Radiator Connection Diagrams, efficiency
Depending on the connection, there are various circuit heating system device thereto heaters. If you look at the cut, each radiator has an upper and a lower fully passageways through which is supplied, goes coolant.
Each section has its own channel, connected to the two common, whose task is to pass through itself hot water, get a piece of thermal energy. Overall efficiency of the device depends on the amount of hot fluid, had time to pass through the channels of the sections and the specific heat of the material from which the heating elements.
The number of channels passing through the individual sections of the coolant depends on the circuit connecting the heater.
With such an arrangement according to the flat radiator coolant can be fed from above or below. When feeding from the top, water passes along the upper common channel, descends along vertical channels separate sections to the bottom, It goes in the same direction, where does.
In theory, fluid must pass through vertical channels sections, heat the radiator completely. In practice - the fluid moves at the lower hydraulic resistance.
The farther away from the entrance there is a section, the smaller the number of coolant passes through it. With a large number of sections, the latter will be heated significantly worse, if not remain cold at low pressure.
In a side-type of installation central heating radiators in the apartment below and applying the history repeats. heater efficiency here will be even worse - hot water must climb up the channels, to the hydraulic resistance is added to the gravitational load.
Side wiring diagram is mostly used when stoyakovoy wiring in apartment buildings.
In this scheme the coolant is fed from the bottom, It passes through the sections, It goes through the same bottom channel. It uses the principle of convection - hot water always rises, cold drops.
So theoretically conceived. On practice, most of the hot water runs from the feed before the entrance, well-heated lower part of the battery, to the top of the media to enter weak. heater efficiency with bottom connection flows on both 15 — 20% below, than the circuit with the lateral strapping.
Connect the bottom of a well, that when the battery is airing, the rest of the heats correctly.
Classic battery strapping method - diagonal. With proper installation of radiators in a flat manner diagonal sections are heated uniformly, increased efficiency of thermal energy.
When diagonal method strapping hot fluid flows through the common upper passage opening, It drops through the channels of each section and exits the bottom flow channel on the other side. Here, the liquid falls downwards, Hydraulic losses are minimal.
There is this method and disadvantages. battery zavozdushivaetsya, for this it is necessary to monitor, Majewski bleed air through valve. The second - the bottom dead zone may be formed with cold water at low pressure.
Method intersection flow direction
re the direction of flow method corrects the main flaw of the side, the upper and lower connection methods - getting weak coolant to remote sections of the battery. Hot water passes through the path of least hydraulic resistance.
When the volume of fluid, entering through a wide passage opening is compared with the, how many passes through the sections of the channels, then the water will not go. The method re direction is, to force the coolant to pass in all sections.
When the upper heating radiator circuit setup is achieved by setting the plug before the last section of the outlet. Plug forcing water to pass through all sections, only go through the last section.
When the bottom connection, the plug is installed immediately after the first section of the feed manifold. This causes hot water to rise up on the first section, pass through the remaining channels to output sections.
In both cases, the connection goes in diagonal mode. Radiator body warms up evenly, excluded airing, the greatest efficiency is achieved using heat energy. This scheme applies for tubular heating elements where the orifice channel sections comparable to the cross section of the horizontal passages.
More complex connection is used for the vertical tubular radiators with a diagonal scheme. Submission takes place from the bottom, Output top opposite side.
After the first section of the feed-through plug installed floor, before the last section to put the full output plug. Part of the hot water passes through the semi-through plug in the bottom channel, portion rises up the first section. This stream is evenly distributed over the vertical channels, falls down, exits through the last section.
Such plugs are used in conventional radiators, sell ready and set in place in the tube or piping connecting locations. Disadvantage - dramatically increases the hydraulic resistance of the battery due to the small section of the channel of the last section through which the liquid stream.
In a side-stream extender connected is set at the output. See detailed and thorough explanation of the method of installation of a radiator in an apartment on the video below.
What better radiator?
Among all the radiators, which are sold in the store, select the, who would like to see in your room. It should fit into the interior, It may even be part of its exclusive. Already further consider its characteristics.
Selection of radiators may be such parameters:
- where you are going to install;
- type radiator;
- operating pressure;
- sectional or monolithic panel;
- exotic looks;
- cost of.
Cast iron radiators are long, but they have a lot of weight, initially require a bulkhead and replacement gaskets, long warm up and have a low emissivity. Are slightly less bimetallic.
Bimetal and aluminum radiators have no difference from a practical point of view. Operating pressure, even in high-rise buildings do not exceed 10-12 atm and such radiators it freely stand. Look in the passport - the manufacturer indicates the operating pressure and test pressure, is not less than 15 atm. This applies to homes with stoyakovoy system.
Putting, install, connect the radiator
The process of assembly and heat sink assembly is not complicated, but it requires special tools, equipment. Think, It may want to contact a specialized organization.
The best option - a contract for the installation of radiators with the Criminal Code. They are made in accordance with the rules of the installation of radiators in the apartment, conduct pressure testing and sign a certificate of acceptance into operation.
the, who decided to work on their own - a few tips on preparing and installing the heater.
- Do not forget to bleed the remaining water from the system.
- Disconnect the old battery.
- Inspect the condition of the radiator, remove the cellophane packaging, remove the protective film from the threads, if there is.
- Expand universal kit for connecting the battery. Package selected threaded diameter of the pipe. As a result, should be: two fittings with right-hand thread, Two fitting with left-hand thread, two American nuts, two cranes, cap, crane Maevskogo, brackets or straps for attaching batteries. Standard internal threads everywhere 3/4 inch, right. It `s that, you need to install a radiator in the apartment of a minimum standard.
- Remove the fitting silicone gasket, Tighten the radiator to check the thread. If the gap is not, remove the fittings, put pads. There is a gap - check, clean thread, It may remain a safety film.
- Separately assemble the compound: fitting + American + valve to supply and return, fitting + cap, fitting + crane Maevskogo. Compounds sit on tape or tow fum. On the plug and the bleed screw - lining, hemp is not necessary. Pull connection.
- Screw the assembled kits to the radiator, do not forget to put the silicone gaskets on fittings. The battery is ready, You can install.
Place the heater in the design position, temporarily connect to pipelines. If it is installed to old pipes, a new radiator holes should be aligned the old battery, common standard - 500 mm.
- Mark the top of the heater, mark the installation location brackets. Remove the battery, mount brackets, set back. Radiator must have a slope of 2-3 mm away from the crane Majewski, vertically, rigidly supported on brackets. Put to level. It remains connected to the piping.
Observe the rules of the installation of radiators in the apartment, above. After the end of the installation, call the representative of the Criminal Code for molding and the signing of the Act of Acceptance. This is an important stage of the final works.