Electrical outlets are a special kind of wiring accessories, which are used to connect the various electrical appliances (as an industrial, and household purpose) to the electrical network. Consider how to choose and how to set podrozetnik.
Installing electrical outlets
At the present time in Russia used a single European standard for performance power supply systems. In accordance with this standard all household wiring accessories, used in the European Union area, It can also be used in the Russian electricity grids. Domestic electrical plugs, eg, You must comply with the standard set by its network of outlets in.
Of course, in real life everything is not so smooth, and old-style sockets in some places still used. these products, calculated, usually, for currents less than 8 Ampere, have inlets somewhat smaller, than the evrorozetok. Therefore, the European standard plug them simply not included.
At the same time old-style plug sometimes fail to connect to modern earthing-pin, which is equipped with special earthing contact and has guide, preventing locking plug inserted in the socket.
Therefore, the only solution in this case will be the replacement of outdated wiring accessories new, especially if you make a major renovated apartment with his hands.
Currently used types of sockets are available in different versions, differing degrees of dust- and water-resistance of these products. To refer to the degree of vulnerability of wiring accessories used, usually, Latin letters IP and two digits. for example, to be placed inside a closed space used products with a degree of security of IP20, Toilet and bathroom - IP44, and outdoor (street) Accommodation - IP65 and above.
Like any operating technique, sockets can sometimes fail. This usually happens because of network congestion, which are caused by long-term use of any high-power devices, as a rule - heating. Input terminals at an overload start to get very hot and can overheat finally fail. Such fault receptacles easy to identify visually, as is usually done during the preventive inspection of the interior electrical equipment. In this case, immediately change the most reasonable old (faulty) a new.
In some situations, loss of power at the outlet due to the burning-off suitable to its conductor - in this case, the outlet does not replace the need to, but rather only to restore contact otgorevshy. (Below we will consider, how to choose the correct socket, some firms to buy and at what price, to choose a reliable and safe option.)
In the same manner all known installation sockets can be divided into two types of:
- Installed in open wiring lines.
- Working in the hidden wiring circuits.
How to install an outlet in an open wiring circuit
The electrical construction of this type structurally designed as a working unit, is equipped with an insulating cover, And these products are attached to the wall surface or by using a special flat area (podrozetnyka), or on the dowels, is fixed directly to the wall.
Installation of such species begins, usually, a wall-mounted Escutcheon, which, depending on the wall material can be mounted rigidly with dowels (in concrete or brick) or using screws (while fixing on plastic and wood), as well as self-tapping screws or screws (when securing the metal base). Holes in the base are prepared in advance - they are drilled using a punch or drill. Escutcheon attached directly to himself receptacle assembly, Why are special holes, available on the basis of. Then the socket terminals are connected and pre-prepared ends of the supply wiring.
insulating (decorative) cover in place wiring input gently incised within the perforated portion manufacturer and then mounted in place with fixation by means of a central screw. special note, that all these operations should be carried out when the circuit- breaker.
Installation of sockets hidden
Mounting socket made flush, usually, using special Enclosures, made in the form of a shallow plastic cup.
Before installation of the "cup" in the first wall is chosen by means of special nozzles to drill (crowns) indentation size Escutcheon. About tom, how it's done, you can find in installation of hidden wiring under plaster.
In order to accommodate Escutcheon in a wall of plasterboard coated, must first drill a circular hole with a size under glass, whereupon this assembly can be inserted into the thus obtained niche and fix it there. Fixing of glass in the Escutcheon drywall made with special feet-clips. Within the walls of brick, concrete or plaster Enclosures fixed by construction mixtures, prepared on the basis of plaster - plaster wall. In this case all the glasses in the wall should be established sufficiently smoothly and preferably flush with the wall plane.
For supply to the electrical wiring must be podrozetnik proshtrobit small groove in the wall, the depth of which should be sufficient for, to completely hide the wires. The resulting Stroebe wiring must be laid so, to supply conductors, zavedonnyh in podrozetnik, the length was about 10 cm. After that, it fixed itself receptacle assembly, to which terminals are attached previously penciled wire.
Securing the socket housing on or Enclosures made using special screws, or using special metal spacers, members of the unit. detail installation height of sockets.
Installation option in podrozetnik old type sockets
For final mounting socket, tighten the shoulder screws with a screwdriver, breeders metal "whiskers", which rigid fixation and carried rosette node Escutcheon.
To secure the place should be well prepared for it, to the front of her guides to be slightly wider than the edges of the Escutcheon. Once installed on the outlet of the decorative cover can be considered, that the construction works are finished.
Useful tips on how to install and connect
To power outlet has served you long and trouble-free, during its operation should be carried out a number of conditions, are defined by the characteristics laid down in the product. Basic operational requirements, applicable to the products of this class, is a need to reduce the transition resistance in the circuit between the contacts of an electric plug and socket contact terminals itself. It manages to achieve this in the case of giving a special shape socket terminals, allows to increase the contact area, and because of their compression.
The old type of outlets to meet these conditions, use spring-loaded terminals, provides a very reliable contact. Used them to create the necessary spring force of compressive contact throughout the life of the under GOST.
Today, specially used for this purpose terminals for connecting wires, It is made of high-tech alloys, energizing properties which eliminate the need for additional spring. A small heating assembly similar rosette terminals does not deteriorate quality markedly contact, whereas the previously used steel springs are often lose their spring-loading properties when overheated.
The case itself is made outlet, usually, from mechanically durable and temperature-resistant dielectric material. In the past, these requirements satisfy the most special technical ceramics, but in our time (after the emergence of new types of heat-resistant and durable polymer) replace ceramics reached advanced materials, having a relatively low cost price.
Wiring accessories company Legrand, eg, It made precisely for this technology and have long enjoyed great demand among Russian consumers. But nonetheless, ceramics and is now used in some samples of Chinese manufacturers of sockets, supplying electrical products in Europe (and in Russia, including). So long not to seek, how to connect the outlet legrand - use our universal installation instructions.
For ease of operation of the individual samples of products of higher price range are equipped with the plug ejection mechanism, which allows you to automatically extract the plug from the socket by pressing a special button.
Another element of improvement outlets were special curtain, serving to cover their operating holes and is designed to protect children from curiosity. These sockets are usually installed in the children's room, but are sometimes not very reliable design, resulting in the seizure blind mechanism and the need for complete replacement of the product.
How to choose the right
Wiring Accessories conventionally classified in three price categories.
- Very inexpensive products economy. are made, usually, for consumers. In the manufacture of these products are used by domestic manufacturers usually the cheapest and not enough high-quality materials. Products made in China are made of good quality materials and look appearance pretty well, but they are high-quality copy European models. Poor quality of these products determines the rate uptime of their work, which leaves much to be desired.
- Sockets and electrical switches mid-market. They can be classified as a fairly high-quality and reliable products, the manufacture of which uses the very latest technology. They attract the "average" buyer good design, but the prices of these products may scare him. As an example, electrical products, Siemens and Legrand, as well as some Chinese-made products (from the company Lezard, eg). Now it will be appreciated, which company is better to take, but from what should be abandoned if possible, t. to. above all, the safety of.
- Electrical products high price category. These products have every reason to claim the "elitism", although they differ from the products of the second group only appearance. In their manufacture are usually used have become fashionable today natural materials, such as wood or leather.
Useful information for installation and connection sockets
Connecting the individual groups of outlets to the residential wiring loop can be either, or by means of separate lines, routed to each outlet individually. In the second case the power cable is laid, or directly from the distribution panel, or on the ballpen in each room (on site facilities) junction box.
Using the junction box allows a few to save on installation, - namely due to the economical distribution of the power cable on the project and reduce the number of operations, spent on its lining.
When laying wires directly from the distribution panel (from a single machine) It recommended to immediately organize a separate line outlets, working with particularly high loads. Such loads include the usual heaters and air conditioners, dishwashers and washing machines, electric stoves and boilers. Socket for each such user must withstand the rated current of at least 16 Ampere (this same current has to be calculated and the circuit breaker).
Thus copper conductor feeding the consumer wires should have a cross section of at least 2,5 mm2 and provides a stock of current. The stock is necessary in order, to compensate for the actual diameter deviation now sold wires from their nominal value, as well as considering the possibility of working under overload. note that, that connection Electric cookers must use trohzhilny copper cable with a cross section of not less than 4 mm2.
The helical wire terminal connector sockets are mounted in conventional manner - by forming an annular contact wires. If sockets are equipped with self-locking spring-loaded contacts (like terminals Wago) - it will only facilitate the process of securing the ends of the wiring. In this case, it is only necessary to remove the insulation from the ends of the wires and insert them into the terminal.
Using our Universal instructions, plug socket and insert it correctly is not difficult.