- Marking of wires by purpose and color
- safety Guides.
- neutral conductor
- PEN or TN-C system
- the phase conductors
- Labeling wires GOST P 50462-2009
- Labeling specifications
- Marking of cable terminations
- The introduction of the new GOST marking wires pros and cons
- Determination conductors unmarked at home
For proper connection of electrical panels it is important to observe certain rules. The basic document for any electrician, engaged in electrical installation is PUE "Rules for Electrical Installation". It describes how to perform wiring, how to calculate the wire size, a cable or wire used.
Additionally the EMP need to know GOST R 50462-2009. In the document described in detail, which color and letter designations may be used for a variety of wire and cable. This document came into force only in 2011.
This new standard, which differs in many respects from the previous. The fact, that the color of the wires in the new guest in many ways contrary to the SAE requirements. The new Standard is designed according to European standards, which differ from the domestic. This often leads to confusion when installing electrical equipment.
Marking of wires by purpose and color
Wire and cable marking, which is applied by the manufacturer, It refers to the factory marking. This shell color and lettering.
Color and lettering possible to obtain all the necessary information. Where, and in which as the active wire should be used.
Color carries information about the appointment of the wire. In most cases, the color coding is applied to the entire length of the wire. If the wire is not insulated, marking is applied at the joints and at its ends.
According to existing standards may be used the following colors of the wires:
- the black;
Knowledge of color and lettering significantly reduces installation time, avoids errors when connecting wires. Errors can cause short circuits and electric shock defeat personnel during commissioning.
For labeling use protective conductors yellow and green color. They can be applied along or across conductors. Moreover, even flowers ratio determined in relation to each other GOST. from 30 to 70 percent of the surface wire of the same color, the rest of the surface of another (for every 15 mm length). The old standard, these requirements are not mentioned.
Under the new state standards apply separately green and yellow color is not allowed!
If the protective conductor is applied a bare wire for other colors - it is necessary to identify via sticky yellow - green tape.
Alphanumeric designation - PE.
When labeling the neutral conductor AC circuits using blue. He is often referred to as "neutral". Lettering - N. In no event should not be confused "ground" to work "0".
PEN or TN-C system
This grounding system, wherein the combined protective earth conductor and a work of "0" over the entire length. They have a yellow-green marking. Connection points and wire ends - blue. It allowed the same inverse labeling: along the entire length - blue, at the ends and at the joints - green-yellow.
TN-C system previously applied throughout. Ease of installation was the first place. Who came to the fore the safety of people. Four-wire system is increasingly replaced by a five-wire TN-S system. It "zero" and "protective" wires separated.
In some projects division into PE and N holds at the substations. To the consumer, power is supplied to five wire cable. But most of the separation occurs in the central cabinet with the opening machine (or disconnect).
the phase conductors
Color coding of the phase conductors in a three-phase circuit - gray, brown and black. If the circuit has a more complex configuration, apply markings in other colors, razrešennymi guests.
The conventional lettering phase conductor - L. For three-phase circuit used notation L1, L2, L3. For circuits DC designation «L +» and «L-».
Labeling wires GOST P 50462-2009
Table I shows the main types of conductors labeled.
Cables and wires, marked not only for its intended purpose. On the cable sheath is usually indicated alpha - numeric designation, by which we can determine its characteristics.
Letter designations domestic products:
1 - material core (A - Aluminum);
2 - a kind of wire (M - Installation, K - control, etc.);
3 - insulation material (P - rubber, P - plastic, etc.);
4 - the protective structure (B - armored metal strips, T - laying the pipes, etc.).
Numerals domestic products:
1 - number of cores(on the solid wire is not the first digit);
2 - cross-section;
3 - the maximum voltage.
Designations under the European standards:
N - Standard VDE;
Y - PVC insulation;
M - installation cable;
RG - armored protection;
C - shielded cable;
SL - control cable;
05 - voltage up to 500 AT;
07 - voltage up to 750 AT.
This is the most common and well-known labeling cables.
Marking of cable terminations
In industrial production, in telephone, telecommunications networks used another type of marking - marking of cable lugs.
For cables with a large number of conductors marking applied when connecting to distribution boxes, shtitam, connectors. Otherwise, find the vein will not be possible. this is especially important in the assembly of electrical switchboards.
Marking of cable terminations can be applied in different ways:
- with a permanent marker (cheap, but not long-lasting);
- with the help of self-laminating marker;
- using marking elements (not suitable for all types of cable);
- using marking equipment (applied by professional installers).
The introduction of the new GOST marking wires pros and cons
The introduction of new European standards greatly simplify installation of a new, of modern equipment. But, in the same time, a number of problems with the maintenance of old electrical, mounted even under the old rules. Replace all the old wiring on electrical installations is not possible. New Standard does not require. It is especially difficult to adjust to the new rules electricians with experience.
Before the phase conductors may be yellow, green and red colors. Now yellow and green are used only for the grounding conductors. In existing installations the bus adjustment capacity of black. Now, this color is used only for marking the phase conductor. Problems in determining the destination of the conductor can result in an accident. For, to avoid problems, must be of paramount importance to give an alphanumeric labeling and location of tires. It is also necessary to closely monitor changes in regulatory documents.
Determination conductors unmarked at home
In ordinary life, often faced with a situation, when labeling household electric absent. All conductors in the panel may be of the same color.
All older homes two-wire network, ie. without protective conductor. Determine what kind of "zero", What is a "phase" can be an indicator screwdriver. This tool is there in every home. Upon contact with the zero conductor to the indicator lamp is not lit. Screwdriver. When you touch in the phase conductor - Lights.
If there is a ground wire network, You need a multimeter. It can help you determine the type of wire - ground or zero. It is necessary to set the voltage value over 220 AT. One pin to phase conductor. The second stage are putting the remaining two wires. Ground wire will value 220 AT, earth will be below this value.
The main thing in any job, related to electricity, exercise extreme care and caution.