Electric floor heating is being applied everywhere, not only in living rooms, but also on balconies, in bathrooms and kitchens. It can be used as an additional heating source in the room together with the radiator. The attractiveness of it is a simple installation and rapid heating of the subfloor. But it is very important to study the performance of underfloor heating in screed technology, that in the future no difficulties with the operation of.
For installation of floor heating should stock up on a certain set of tools, which will vary depending on the specific conditions and the list of works. Among the key can be identified:
- Kit floor heating, which includes heating elements, sensors, RCD protection system.
- Wiring, selected option cable (odnožilʹnyj, sturdy).
- Mounting and connecting wires.
- copper cable, acting as ground.
- Reinforcing mesh or module.
- temperature controller, etc..
With regard to the direct holding laying electric underfloor in mortar, then there will have to use pliers, special clips, hairdryer construction when connecting the heating cable, etc.. When all this is available, possible to start planning surface, quality distribution of heating elements. This in turn will allow to calculate the required amount of floor heating.
calculation of material
Some manufacturers offer their customers complete table, which allows to determine the order, which is the number of elements of warm electric floor must be purchased for qualitative installation. Much will depend on the room itself, from its heat. This will determine the necessary step of laying the heating elements, that will cover all possible area. It is worth noting, that by using electric warm floorand as the primary heat source, heating cables under the screed of concrete must cover a 70% Square all premises.
Easier to make calculations using the Infrared floor heating. One need only purchase the number of heating elements, which will cover a certain area of the room in advance.
Electric cable is calculated on the basis of its length for connection to the wiring, to the thermostat, from the counter and the other elements underfloor. No harm will even have some stock, so that when the device warm floor does not have to be distracted from work.
when a assembling electric underfloor, then immediately should forget about the direct connection of all components directly to a wall outlet. It is strictly forbidden to do for their own safety as.
Do not be amiss to check the electrical connections in the apartment or house, which must withstand the entire load and with a margin of underfloor heating. Otherwise, you must replace it with the appropriate, and establish appropriate fuses (machines).
Prior to the beginning of floor heating unit in the room should be to prepare the surface for work. In some cases, even a need to remove the old screed, if it is very damaged and has serious flaws. It is removed to the ground, to slabs as possible. Thereafter, all the debris removed from the surface and the dirt.
If there are minor differences in elevation over the floor in the room, potholes, cracks, it is best to pour a little rough layer of cement-sand screed. For further work can begin only after the complete drying of the solution.
When you're done, performed waterproofing layer. Furthermore subfloor material must go to the wall and, about 10-15 cm. Subsequently unnecessary parts are cut easily with a knife construction. We can not forget about the damping tape (vertical waterproofing), which is necessary to suppress the thermal expansion of the coupler during operation warm electric underfloor.
The insulating layer is created to retain heat inside the building, rather than spending it on downstream facilities. The amount of material used will depend on the premise, its configuration, as well as the type of surface in the room. thermal insulation It has its purpose, that should be taken during the operation:
- Heated floor can act as an additional heat source in the room. In this case, enough acquisition polyethylene foam, having a foil covering (penofol). This will act as a substrate for electric floor heating under the screed during installation.
- Sheets of extruded polystyrene or expanded polystyrene will look great on the grounds of sex, when the lower floor has a heating. Is selected and the appropriate thickness within 20-50 mm. You can choose from the list, and the other heater, having a sufficient level of strength. The main thing with this, to have a proper thickness.
- It is not always the bottom rooms have a heating system. It is mainly concerned with basements and garages. Here, the insulation layer should have to 100 mm. An alternative material - mineral wool, having similar qualities and characteristics.
Insulation can be laid and the walls. This will also facilitate quenching of thermal expansion during operation screed floor heating system. But then the heater must be compressible and have a thickness of no more than 20 mm.
Further there is laying a reinforcing grid, which not only creates a very strong "pie" warm floor, but also provides an opportunity to strengthen the self heating elements. instead layer reinforcement adding a suitable solution microfibre together with plasticizers.
Selecting heating zone
Heat transfer in the room should be equal over the entire surface. Otherwise you are encountered with overheating of the heating element and its failure. Then it is necessary to produce not only repair divided portion, and sometimes - and the entire floor heating. To avoid this, the cable is placed in the concrete floor, having identical composition over the entire area and the same distance from the top of the cable to fill the wall. It is easy to forget about the heat-insulating materials, as sawdust or expanded clay.
Much will depend on the chosen variant flooring, available to it, the degree of thermal insulation qualities. Because heat is initially transferred or laminate tile, and after warming up the air in the room. On warm electric floor surface of the floor after the subsequent mounting screed should not be placed bulky furniture, carpets and other items, that will create obstacles to uniform heat transfer. If the furniture has legs, their height should be at least 15 cm.
previously, during the creation of floor heating circuits on paper, should provide all the above aspects. In the presence of such items, pre-defined areas, where the heating cable is missing. Laying of floor heating cable in mortar should be in the wrong place, which will guarantee open.
Cable for floor heating
Each option has its own power cable and a length. If you cut a smaller piece of the cable, then he immediately reduce the resistance, needed for the stress 220 AT. This all lead to overheating and damage.
There are some recommendations, through which you can choose high quality heating cable. Much depends on the specific power output, that includes the number of watts, required for each square meter of floor space.
With such a floor covering as laminate, parquet or cork, Minimal power density should be 80 W / m2. Tile or granite has great performance - not less 100 Watts per square meter. There may be cases of using underfloor heating systems, as the primary heating system. In this case, the "cold" room should have a specific power 200 W per sq.m., and insulated buildings - 150 W / m2.
Cable length will be determined depending on, any area in the room will be covered with them. Of no little importance and will play a production step of laying the heating element. Since the store for the implementation of the standard length of the cable, it is best for them and to be guided. When all calculation is done as follows::
When the room has an area of 15 m2 and requires 1 kW specific power cable, Standard length is purchased on sale 80 meters and make calculations: 15/80 and get 0.1875 meters - the best pitch stacking. Standard cable must abide by its parameters. It is better to reduce or increase the number of stacking step, than not subsequently receive the necessary effectiveness of the heating systems.
Cable also can be solid or sturdy. In any given situation has its own peculiarities and subtleties. Single-core cable must be connected to the network both its ends. That is, it is directed across the heated area in the room, then returns back.
Better and easier to produce a two-core cable laying, where it is necessary to connect to the network only "cold" end.
A few details need to talk directly about the step of laying, before, how to implement screed on a warm floor. From the border of the heated floor area to the laid heating cable should be ½ pitch placement. Heated area - this is the area, which stands out from the area of the whole premises, which produces installation of underfloor heating under screed, is taken away from the area of the furniture, under which not install heating elements will be carried out:
S (Heating.) = S (ind.) – S (furniture)
Now you can begin to consider the choice of the optimal cable spacing. For this purpose there is a certain formula:
H = S/L*100
In the formula, should give decoding each component: H - step packing, S - square subfloor, which will be heated, on it and will be laying the heating cable, L - length of the used heating cable assembly.
Maximum stacking step is best to choose 20 cm. It was in that range, and will be the best warm-air efficiency in the room from the bottom. As for the heating cable, it should be at least 17 W per meter.
The final stage installation of underfloor heating a tie - very filling solution, to be prepared in strict accordance proportions of each component. In order not to waste their time on the preparation of the solution, it is best to visit the store and buy ready-made dry mixes, specially designed for underfloor heating. There will be enough only to add a certain amount of water, as there is an indication on the packaging. In this case, all the additives and components will already be available as part of the solution, that will create a screed over underfloor heating.
The optimum thickness of the concrete screed 40-60 mm. Everything will depend on the specific situation, selected step stacking heating elements. If further into "cake" include reinforcement layer of metal mesh, the screed thickness can be reduced to 30-40 mm.
For screed and other requirements imposed, which you should pay particular attention:
- The length of one of the parties screed should not exceed 5 m.
- The area of the heated screed is max 20 m2.
If the wall is longer in the room, or necessary to heat a larger area subfloor, it is best to use a second cable, which will be placed into a separate tie. Between them they have to be separated by thermal seams. At this intersection of the heating cable is not allowed. Around reason - the thermal expansion of the material used in the assembly. thermal joints, located on the contour of each tie, filled with a heat insulator.
Since the screed during operation will be heated, then it is necessary to add a special additive in the preparation of the solution. This will improve its elasticity, as well as eliminate the possibility of occurrence of cracks on the surface during the heating.
As regards the proportions of mixing a solution of, to the 1 part of cement required 4 parts gravel and the fine fraction 4 parts sand. Besides, and the plasticizer is added, namely 0.01 parts. If the solution will very liquid, then the probability of cracking after laying electric warm floor under the screed, increase. It is not allowed and the formation of internal voids in the screed. This will lead to local overheating of the heating cable and its failure. You have to spend time and money, to produce Repair of floor heating in room.
Include a heating system is possible only after complete drying of the concrete screed, which usually takes 28 days. During this time, should create the conditions for even drying and high-quality setting of the solution.
The process of implementation of underfloor heating and subsequent pouring of concrete solution is not time consuming and does not require tangible knowledge. All that is required - just observe the technology and guided all the tips from experts. That will have a good heating system, which will transfer heat into the room from the floor. This all creates a comfort for everyone, who will be in the room. Better one time to invest in the purchase of high quality material, than later to throw out money for repairs.